Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 5227). Subtropical; 33°N -
Eastern Pacific: California, USA to Peru and the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 9341). Based on genetic studies, populations from the Galapagos Islands and mainland part of the tropical eastern Pacific may represent two distinct species and suggest one as endemic to the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 103992).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
A common but inconspicuous species (Ref. 9341). Found in cracks, crevices, under ledge overhangs and other recesses on rocky reefs, steep slopes, and especially on walls. Small individuals often stay near the protective spines of long spined urchin, Diadema mexicanum (Ref. 5227). Anterolateral glandular groove with venom gland (Ref. 57406).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 21.3 - 29.1, mean 26.1 °C (based on 272 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00571 - 0.01672), b=2.98 (2.83 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 55.4 [21.2, 154.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.698 [0.343, 1.774] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [16.9, 20.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.34 [0.15, 0.95] g/100g ; Selenium = 10.8 [4.9, 28.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 97.5 [31.4, 312.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.07 [0.67, 1.69] mg/100g (wet weight);