Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 20 - 40 m (Ref. 2683). Subtropical; 47°N - 12°N, 32°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Azores, Madeira, and Morocco to the Canary Islands, Cape Verde and Senegal. Also known from several localities in the Mediterranean Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 47289); common length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4570); max. published weight: 107.72 g (Ref. 122896)
Inhabits shallow coastal waters (Ref. 2683); rocky areas and favours habitats with generous brown algal growth, rocky depressions and ledges and small boulders (Ref. 95708). Feeds on crustaceans and small fishes (Ref. 4570). Anterolateral glandular groove with venom gland (Ref. 57406).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N. and L.J. Dempster, 1990. Scorpaenidae. p. 665-679. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4510)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 14.3 - 19.7, mean 17.2 °C (based on 27 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00773 - 0.01705), b=3.00 (2.88 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.71 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 128 [61, 335] mg/100g; Iron = 1.16 [0.61, 2.34] mg/100g; Protein = 18.9 [17.3, 20.3] %; Omega3 = 0.621 [0.263, 1.659] g/100g; Selenium = 16.7 [7.2, 43.1] μg/100g; VitaminA = 28.7 [9.3, 89.7] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.1 [0.7, 1.6] mg/100g (wet weight);