Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 55 - 73 m (Ref. 5951). Temperate; 50°N - 29°N, 82°W - 52°W
Western Atlantic: Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada to northern Florida in USA.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 21.9  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5951); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 1093)
Occurs from shore to 45 m depth, occasionally in deeper water.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.9 - 10.4, mean 4.7 °C (based on 23 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5645 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00585 - 0.02970), b=3.04 (2.85 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.24).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .