Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 15 - 20 m (Ref. 86589). Tropical; 9°N - 7°S, 60°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: Coastal rivers from Guyana to northern Brazil.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 52.5, range 46 - 59 cm
Max length : 190 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 86589); common length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 86589); max. published weight: 50.0 kg (Ref. 5217); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 51994)
soft rays: 18 - 20;
Vertebrae: 49 - 51. This species is distinguished by the following characters: in life, yellowish body; swim bladder divided into 3 chambers; shield-shaped nuchal plate, usually larger than the supraoccipital process; head shield exposed and granulated in orbital and postorbital regions; first 2 gill with no mesial gill rakers. Sciades parkeri can further be distinguished from sympatric congeners by the following: fleshy furrow connecting posterior nares absent (vs. present in S. couma, S. herzbergii and S. passany); moderately sized posterior chamber of swim bladder (vs. small in S. proops; absent in S. couma, S. herzbergii, S. passany); nuchal plate with no anterior notch (vs. anterior notched in S. proops, sometimes notched in S. herzbergii); palatal patches forming a U-shaped band (vs. transverse in S. passany, lateral edge on accessory patches not emarginated or shallowly notched; lateral edge with an angled and pronounced notch in S. proops) (Ref. 86589).
Mainly found in turbid waters over muddy bottoms in coastal areas, estuaries and lower parts of rivers. Sexually mature after around two years of age. Upon hatching, the alevins are relatively large, approximately 6.0-6.5 cm (Ref. 35381). Marketed fresh and salted (Ref. 5217). Fish exported to Canada, USA, England, and Holland (Rayman Bedessee, pers. comm.).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing. May employ mouth booding as parenting strategy (Ref. 205).
Betancur-R., R.: Marceniuk, A.P. and P. Béarez, 2008. Taxonomic status and redescription of the gillbacker sea catfish (Siluriformes: Ariidae: Sciades parkeri). Copeia 2008(4):827-834. (Ref. 86589)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 58010)
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 27.3 - 28.3, mean 27.7 °C (based on 174 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00500 - 0.01450), b=3.11 (2.96 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.46; tm=2; tmax=4).
Prior r = 0.76, 95% CL = 0.48 - 1.20, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 63.8 [33.6, 136.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.04 [0.63, 1.87] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.8 [16.1, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.215 [0.116, 0.403] g/100g ; Selenium = 61.9 [29.2, 143.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.7 [4.2, 32.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.723 [0.467, 1.124] mg/100g (wet weight);