Teleostei (teleosts) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Scaridae
(Parrotfishes) > Scarinae
Etymology: Scarus: Greek, skaros = a fish described by anciente writers as a parrot fish; 1601 (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 90102), usually ? - 12 m (Ref. 89972). Tropical; 30°N - 28°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Line and Society islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Shark Bay and the southern Great Barrier Reef of Australia and Rapa in the Austral Islands. Presence in Somalia to be confirmed (Ref. 30573).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 500.00 g (Ref. 3488)
soft rays: 9. Primary phases of S. globiceps, S. psittacus and S. rivulatus are difficult to distinguish from one another. S. globiceps differs in that it is the only one with 3 scale rows and 5 or more scales in the ventral row.
Inhabits lagoons, seaward reefs, and reef flats (Ref. 90102). More common in outer reef habitats than in protected waters. Spawns in groups or in pairs. Feeds on benthic algae (Ref. 89972). Caught mainly with traps, nets and other types of artisanal gear.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Parenti, P. and J.E. Randall, 2000. An annotated checklist of the species of the labroid fish families Labridae and Scaridae. Ichthyol. Bull. J.L.B. Smith Inst. Ichthyol. (68):1-97. (Ref. 35918)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.9 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 3087 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00592 - 0.01613), b=3.09 (2.95 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 41.5 [23.0, 72.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.685 [0.438, 1.146] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [16.0, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.0552 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.1 [11.6, 40.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 45.2 [11.3, 174.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.19 [1.56, 2.97] mg/100g (wet weight);