Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cichliformes
(Cichlids, convict blennies) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Geophaginae
Etymology: Satanoperca: Taken from the prince of darkness. Hube liked to name cave fishes with diabolic names based on the idea of hell being underground + Greek, perke = perch (Ref. 45335). More on author: Heckel.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: ? - 7.0; dH range: ? - 10. Tropical; 24°C - 27°C (Ref. 2059)
South America: Amazon River basin, in the Guaporé River in Brazil and Bolivia; Paraná River basin, in the Paraguay River drainage in Brazil and northern Paraguay (to the Aquidabán River).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 8.6  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 115169); 27.5 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 383.00 g (Ref. 115169); max. published weight: 383.00 g
Inhabits streams and lagoons with sandy to muddy bottom. Forages by plunging its protrusible mouth into the sandy or muddy bottom, filling it with sediment, and sorting out food inside the mouth. The bulk of the mouthful is expelled through the opercular openings and the
mouth, producing a cloud of sediment (substrate sifting). This feeding mode leaves a series of pits and mounds on the bottom. Feeds on insect larvae, crustaceans, plant debris and loose scales (Ref. 40396). Discourages piranha attacks by watching the predator, a tactic used when 2-5 fish feed in groups and the individuals take turns as the "watchman". Confronts an approaching piranha by charging towards the predator with an open mouth and erect dorsal fin (Ref. 9080).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ovophile mouth brooders.
Kullander, S.O., 2003. Cichlidae (Cichlids). p. 605-654. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36377)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02818 (0.01662 - 0.04779), b=2.99 (2.84 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.34 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .