Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Sardinella: Latin and Greek, sarda = sardine; name related to the island of Sardinia; diminutive (Ref. 45335). More on author: Steindachner.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous; depth range 5 - 60 m (Ref. 114041). Subtropical; 31°N - 36°S, 98°W - 35°W
Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, West Indies southward to Brazil and northern Uruguay (identifications are not always reliable).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 19.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 103182); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 12 - 23. Diagnostic features as for Sardinella aurita from which it differs in having the anterior gill rakers on the lower limbs of the second and third gill arches distinctly curled downward (more or less flat in S. aurita) (Ref. 188). The pelvic fin ray count of i 8 distinguishes S. brasiliensis from all other species of Sardinella, also Harengula and Opisthonema (Ref. 188). Similar to S. aurita (Ref. 26938). Bluish black above. Peritoneum black (Ref. 37032). Separation of Sardinella brasiliensis (synonym of Sardinella janeiro) from Sardinella aurita on the basis of gill raker shape and a higher gill raker count is tentative.
Found in coastal waters, often forming compact schools. Maximum depth range based on spawners in Brazil (Ref. 114041). Probably similar to S. aurita, but if they are indeed distinct, then this species may account for the double spawning peaks of S. aurita. Constitutes a large fishery in Venezuela, but statistical reports are not separated from S. aurita. Marketed fresh and canned (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.7 - 28, mean 26 °C (based on 290 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00671 - 0.00985), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.30 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.44-0.72; tm=1).
Prior r = 0.40, 95% CL = 0.26 - 0.60, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 184 [93, 389] mg/100g ; Iron = 3.92 [1.94, 7.80] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.8 [18.7, 21.0] % ; Omega3 = 1.12 [0.39, 3.00] g/100g ; Selenium = 52.3 [20.3, 128.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 24.9 [5.3, 112.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.25 [0.75, 2.21] mg/100g (wet weight);