Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; depth range 100 - 200 m (Ref. 59043). Temperate; 46°N - 45°N, 10°E - 11°E
Europe: Lake Garda, Italy. Introduced in several lakes of northern Italy, Germany and New Zealand but all introductions failed.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 59043)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Distinguished from congeners in Italy by its unique almost absence of dark spots on head. Differs further by the combination of the following characters: adults lacking parr-marks; and outside spawning season silvery, with few, very small dark spots on body; during spawning season, some males show a dark marbled color pattern (Ref. 59043).
Lives in lakes at 100-200 m depth. Feeds predominantly on zooplankton. Also preys on other benthic invertebrates during summer. Spawns close to underwater springs at 50-300 m depths (Ref. 59043). Threatened due to habitat destruction, pollution and overfishing (Ref. 26100) and possibly due to the introduction of exotic Coregonus and Salmonidae (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00488 - 0.02245), b=3.03 (2.86 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100).