Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 0 - 3000 m (Ref. 27000). Deep-water; 73°N - 10°N, 77°W - 1°W
Eastern Atlantic: scattered records from Greenland to Cape Verde. Also known from Western Atlantic.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 161 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27000)
Bathypelagic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on fishes. Oviparous, reduction of jaws and complete loss of teeth in sexually mature specimens of both sexes. Mature males with greatly enlarged olfactory organs (Ref. 6718). Minimum depth from Ref. 58018.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nielsen, J.G. and E. Bertelsen, 1990. Saccopharyngidae. p. 204-205. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 6539)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 2.1 - 11.1, mean 6.1 °C (based on 371 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00102 (0.00046 - 0.00225), b=3.06 (2.88 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Assuming semelparity and tm>10).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100).