Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 450 - 2300 m (Ref. 50610). Deep-water; 65°N - 36°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 57328)
Circumglobal, widely distributed in the Atlantic, most Indian Ocean submarine ridges, Subantarctic, North Pacific and tropical western and eastern Pacific.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 48.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4460)
Captured between 1,400-2,100 m in the Atlantic Ocean; 1,120-1,650 m in the Indian Ocean; 585-1,416 off Australia; 1,020-1,540 in Western Pacific; 911-1,187 Eastern Pacific and Bering Sea; and 800-1,400 m in the Pacific Ocean (Ref. 5003, 57826). Found on the continental slope (Ref. 75154). Maximum depth reported from Ref. 4460. Upper distribution of this species may follow the 4°C isotherm (Ref. 57826).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sazonov, Y.I. and D.F. Markle, 1990. Alepocephalidae. p. 111-114. In O. Gon and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. 462 p. (Ref. 5003)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 3.2 - 9, mean 5.2 °C (based on 1502 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00190 - 0.00762), b=3.22 (3.04 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100).