Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 33839). Subtropical
Eastern Indian Ocean and Southwest Pacific: south coast of Australia; New Zealand (Ref. 5755).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9563)
soft rays: 40 - 50. Body deep (47-60% SL). Snout slightly extended into fleshy process projecting more or less in front of oblique mouth. Scales very small, rather firmly attached; cycloid on both sides, covering head except well anteriorly. Caudal fin rays 14 -17 (Ref. 33839).
Common on silty sand substrates from estuaries and inshore waters down to 100 m depth. Juveniles occasionally entering rivers.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kailola, P.J., M.J. Williams, P.C. Stewart, R.E. Reichelt, A. McNee and C. Grieve, 1993. Australian fisheries resources. Bureau of Resource Sciences, Canberra, Australia. 422 p. (Ref. 6390)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 11.9 - 18.3, mean 16.6 °C (based on 248 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01820 (0.00786 - 0.04213), b=2.97 (2.76 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 107 [44, 243] mg/100g; Iron = 1.08 [0.50, 2.26] mg/100g; Protein = 18.1 [16.6, 19.6] %; Omega3 = 0.212 [0.104, 0.434] g/100g; Selenium = 38.1 [17.5, 93.5] μg/100g; VitaminA = 3.74 [0.87, 17.31] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.728 [0.467, 1.155] mg/100g (wet weight);