Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 9258). Temperate
Southwest Pacific: around New Zealand only.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 32.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258); max. published weight: 600.00 g (Ref. 9258)
Inhabits coastal waters down to about 50 m (Ref. 9258). Juveniles gather in sheltered inshore waters, such as estuarine areas, shallow mudflats and sandflats, where they remain for up to two years (Ref. 9072).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paulin, C., A. Stewart, C. Roberts and P. McMillan, 1989. New Zealand fish: a complete guide. National Museum of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series No. 19. 279 p. (Ref. 5755)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 11.7 - 20.2, mean 17.6 °C (based on 36 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.00732 - 0.03130), b=2.94 (2.75 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=4; k >0.30).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100).