Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Ephippidae
(Spadefishes, batfishes and scats)
Etymology: Rhinoprenes: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek, prenes = the front part of a body (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal. Tropical
Western Pacific: Papua New Guinea to northern Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 245)
soft rays: 16 - 17. Body deep and compressed, quadrangular in outline. Mouth small and inferior. Second dorsal spine, fourth pectoral ray, and first pelvic ray greatly prolonged into free filaments which reach tail base or beyond. First dorsal-fin spine, fourth pectoral-fin ray, and first pelvic-fin ray greatly elongated filaments, reaching to or beyond vertical line at rear end of dorsal-and anal-fin bases. Head naked. Mouth inferior, the snout and upper jaw projecting in front of lower jaw (Ref 43039).
Feeds on algae and sewage (Ref. 4537).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nelson, J.S., 1984. Fishes of the world. 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. 523 p. (Ref. 245)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.9 - 28.8, mean 28 °C (based on 232 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01047 - 0.06310), b=2.94 (2.73 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (19 of 100) .