Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Teleostei (teleosts) > Ovalentaria/misc
(Various families in series Ovalentaria) > Embiotocidae
Etymology: Phanerodon: Greek, phaner, -eros = visible + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Girard.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 46 m (Ref. 2850). Subtropical; 61°N - 28°N, 147°W - 113°W
Eastern Pacific: Wrangell, southeastern Alaska to Guadalupe Island, off north-central Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 44.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27436)
(total): 9 - 11;
soft rays: 27 - 30;
Vertebrae: 33 - 38. Above, dark gray or brown pigment with a silvery luster which dominates the color on sides and belly; darker blotches on the back and sides, dark vertical bars on juveniles; fins dusky (Ref. 6885).
Adults occur in rocky shores, often around kelp, pilings and underwater structures (Ref. 2850). Feed on hard-shelled mollusks, crabs and barnacles (Ref. 2850). Viviparous, female carries the developing young (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Viviparous, female carries the developing young (Ref. 205).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 8.6 - 15.3, mean 10.3 °C (based on 62 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.00854 - 0.04453), b=2.97 (2.77 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.53 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2.5; tmax=10).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 79.1 [44.3, 138.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.02 [0.59, 1.72] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [17.7, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.254 [0.160, 0.409] g/100g ; Selenium = 25 [13, 49] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 8.16 [2.50, 25.90] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.674 [0.481, 0.977] mg/100g (wet weight);