Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Rajella: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 719 - 1620 m (Ref. 4426). Deep-water; 15°N - 34°S
Eastern Atlantic: off southern Rio de Oro in Western Sahara, Namibia, and South Africa. Probably occurs throughout the area along the deeper West African slope.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 39.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 5578)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Moderately long snout, small eyes, and a flat disc; tail about as long as body; moderately large, inconspicuous light thorns dorsally and a few on snout; mid-dorsal line of thorns reduced in adolescents and adults (Ref. 5578). Whitish grey to dark grey dorsally, white ventrally with dark rear margins and dark patches on underside of tail (Ref. 5578).
Found in deeper slope waters (Ref. 4426). Feed on cephalopods, mysids and small bony fishes (Ref. 5578). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.3 - 6.6, mean 4.3 °C (based on 24 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00144 - 0.00663), b=3.22 (3.05 - 3.39), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.53 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .