Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Rajella: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 650 - 4156 m (Ref. 4426), usually 1500 - ? m (Ref. 3167). Deep-water; 60°N - 10°N
Eastern Atlantic: Rockall Trough along Ireland, northern Bay of Biscay, northern Morocco and Azores, off Rio de Oro (Western Sahara) and Conakry (Guinea). Western Atlantic: Grand Banks off Newfoundland, Canada southward to northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Distribution probably much wider in deep water.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4426)
Found on continental slopes and deepwater rises (Ref. 3167). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 5.3 cm long and 3.0 cm wide (Ref. 41249).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 3167). Paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 3.3 - 5.2, mean 3.9 °C (based on 389 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00316 (0.00149 - 0.00669), b=3.23 (3.06 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 5.55 [0.81, 110.64] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.332 [0.031, 4.526] mg/100g ; Protein = 15 [13, 17] % ; Omega3 = 0.536 [0.211, 1.385] g/100g ; Selenium = 20.2 [3.3, 98.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 4.85 [0.35, 64.69] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.307 [0.021, 3.539] mg/100g (wet weight);