Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 70 m (Ref. 26282). Tropical; 14°N - 6°S, 92°W - 82°W (Ref. 114953)
Eastern Pacific: from Mexico and from north-western Costa Rica to northern Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 101827); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 37888)
Rostral cartilage distally enlarged; anterior nasal prolongations reaching medial margin of nostrils; posterior margin of spiracle with 2 folds, the medial one rudimentary; a line of about 77 prickles between nuchal region and first dorsal fin; 3 or 4 prickles on shoulders, few tubercles on snout and small prickles on anterior margin of orbits; body covered dorsally with about 80 white dots (3 to 5 mm in diameter) over a brown body; underbody white except snout with a black diamond shape blotch, extending backward laterally (Ref. 13259).
Living individuals reported to be in sandy and rocky environments near coral-reefs at 18-24 m depth of the Colombian coast (Ref. 101827). In contrast the type specimen was taken from a depth of 70 m (Ref. 26282). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Males mature at ca. 71 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00295 (0.00162 - 0.00538), b=3.08 (2.93 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .