Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Cyprinidae
(Minnows or carps) > Smiliogastrinae
Etymology: Pseudobarbus: Greek, pseudes = false + Latin, barbus = barbel (Ref. 45335). More on author: Peters.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 31°S - 35°S
Africa: Sundays River, Swartkops River and Baakens River systems, which discharge into Algoa Bay, in South Africa (Ref. 114782).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 4 - 4 cm
Max length : 8.9 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114782)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 8 - 9;
Vertebrae: 36 - 39. Diagnosis: Pseudobarbus afer differs from P. burchelli, P. burgi, P. skeltoni and P. verloreni by the possession of a single pair of oral barbels (Ref. 114782). The possession of fewer and larger scales separates P. afer, which has 29-35 scales along the lateral line, from P. quathlambae and P. asper, with respectively more than 60 and more than 35 scales along the lateral line (Ref. 114782). Lack of a mid-dorsal stripe and a relatively deeper head and body profile separates P. afer from the more slender bodied P. tenuis, head depth being 66.5-78.2% of head length vs. 61.1-71.2% and body depth being 22.5-31.6% of standard length vs. 18.8-26.8% (Ref. 114782). Lack of prominent black spots and patches on the body distinguishes P. afer from P. phlegethon (Ref. 114782). Pseudobarbus afer most closely resembles P. senticeps, P. swartzi and P. asper; barbel length and the number of scale rows along the lateral line separates P. afer from these three species; short barbels which do not reach the vertical through the posterior margin of the eye and a higher number of lateral line scales, 29-35, distinguishes P. afer from P. senticeps whose barbels reach or surpass the vertical through posterior edge of eye and has fewer and larger scales along lateral line, 25-30, and around caudal peduncle, 10-12; it further differs from P. senticeps by lack of a blotch of pigment at the base of the caudal fin, while the lateral stripe in P. senticeps terminates in a triangular blotch at the base of the caudal fin (Ref. 114782). Pseudobarbus afer differs from P. swartzi by possession of fewer scale rows along the lateral line, 29-35 vs. 34-37, and fewer scales around the caudal peduncle, 12-16 vs. 13-17; it has a distinct mesh-like pigmentation pattern below the lateral line which further separates this species from P. swartzi which lacks discernible pigmentation pattern on the latero-ventral scales (Ref. 114782). Pseudobarbus afer is separated from P. asper by the possession of fewer and larger scales, lateral line scale series 29-35 vs. 35-45 and caudal peduncle scale rows 12-16 vs. 16-22 (Ref. 114782).
This species refers clear rocky pools; fry and juveniles occur in large schoals, adults in small groups (Ref. 7248). Once common and widely distributed, but Pseudobarbus afer suffered severe decline in distribution and abundance, mainly due to the invasion by alien predators and competitors, deteioration of water quality and loss of critical habitat (Ref. 114782). Omnivorous, feeding mainly from the bottom on algae and small invertebrates (Ref. 7248). Breeds in summer, spawning in riffles above pools (Ref. 7248).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chakona, A. and P.H. Skelton, 2017. A review of the Pseudobarbus afer (Peters, 1864) species complex (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the eastern Cape Fold Ecoregion of South Africa. ZooKeys 657:109-140. (Ref. 114782)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Endangered (EN) (B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v)); Date assessed: 01 December 2016
Threat to humans
Fisheries: ; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00226 - 0.01220), b=3.11 (2.90 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.24 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 6.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.17; tm=2; tmax=6).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .