Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Balistidae
Etymology: Pseudobalistes: Greek, pseudes = false + Greek, ballo = to throw (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 30 - 50 m (Ref. 1602), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 32°N - 24°S, 30°E - 145°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to East Africa, through northern Australia to Society Islands, north to southern Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9770)
soft rays: 19 - 24. Dark brown, scales with yellow spot; pectoral, soft dorsal, anal and caudal fins dark with yellow margins; juveniles yellowish brown with bluish grey spots and blotches (Ref. 4420). Juveniles under about 5 cm, tan with dark saddles and numerous dark wavy lines on the body. Larger juveniles loose the dark saddles and become covered in a network of brilliant blue lines which become increasingly interconnected with growth (Ref. 37816).
Occur in clear shallow lagoons and seaward reefs; sandy areas near reef patches of reef edge are preferred. Adults on deep reefs or with shipwrecks, usually deeper than 30 meters. Juveniles inshore on rubble reef or small outcrops on open substrate (Ref. 48637). Feed on sea urchins, crustaceans, mollusks, dead fish, tunicates or corals (Ref. 5503). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Monogamous (Ref. 52884). Also caught with drive-in nets. Marketed fresh and dried-salted (Ref. 9770).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Nest-guarding females are aggressive (Ref. 9770). Females are territorial, solely tending and guarding the eggs. Males exhibit polygyny (Ref. 116451).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 28.4, mean 27.5 °C (based on 138 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03548 (0.02074 - 0.06071), b=2.94 (2.79 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 39.6 [15.5, 83.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.48 [0.28, 0.98] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [17, 21] % ; Omega3 = 0.127 [0.066, 0.259] g/100g ; Selenium = 36.2 [18.3, 81.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 59.9 [18.0, 197.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.886 [0.583, 1.378] mg/100g (wet weight);