Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 37 - 300 m (Ref. 5217), usually 73 - 180 m (Ref. 7251). Subtropical; 37°N - 24°N
Western Atlantic: North Carolina and northern Gulf of Mexico to southern Florida in USA; northern coast of South America (Ref. 5217).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Inhabits offshore waters, mostly from 73-180 m depth. Minimum depth from Ref. 26912.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 17.8 - 23.9, mean 20.5 °C (based on 30 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).