Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 30 - 200 m (Ref. 27363). Subtropical; 26°N - 41°S, 98°W - 34°W
Southwest Atlantic: Espírito Santo, Brazil (Ref. 57756) to eastern Argentina (Ref. 47377).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 34.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 94910); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6077)
soft rays: 33. Body without scales. Four lateral lines. Upper side of body greyish brown, silvery on side, yellowish on belly. Seven dark broad bands on upper part of body. Tip of each fin blackish. Dark blotches on fin membrane of dorsal and pectoral fins. Pelvic fin yellowish (Ref. 27363).
Feed on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 47377).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Menni, R.C., R.A. Ringuelet and R.H. Aramburu, 1984. Peces marinos de la Argentina y Uruguay. Editorial Hemisferio Sur S.A. Buenos, Aires, Argentina. 359 p. (Ref. 2806)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 17 - 27.1, mean 24.1 °C (based on 172 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00550 (0.00433 - 0.00697), b=3.18 (3.11 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.59 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.28).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 98.1 [51.9, 192.0] mg/100g; Iron = 1.2 [0.7, 2.1] mg/100g; Protein = 17.7 [16.7, 18.7] %; Omega3 = 0.304 [0.182, 0.503] g/100g; Selenium = 32.1 [16.4, 69.0] μg/100g; VitaminA = 22.8 [7.7, 66.8] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.728 [0.511, 1.037] mg/100g (wet weight);