Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 50 - 600 m (Ref. 5217), usually 150 - 600 m (Ref. 5217). Deep-water; 41°N - 4°N
Western Atlantic: Canada to New York, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to the Antilles (Ref. 26340) and French Guiana.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Found on soft bottoms (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 7.9 - 20.6, mean 13.4 °C (based on 234 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5029 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00545 - 0.01393), b=3.10 (2.96 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tmax>4).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).