Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 216 m (Ref. 37816), usually 10 - 150 m (Ref. 1602). Tropical; 32°N - 23°S
Indo-Pacific: Comoros to the Line, Marquesan and Society islands, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia. Recently found in southern Natal, South Africa (Ref. 11228).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
soft rays: 8. Post larvae with large white spots, the spots remaining part of the adult pattern, but become obscured with additional small white spots in the grey areas. The fins remain clear (Ref. 48635).
Sporadic distribution and habitat specific, preferring large coral heads on slopes prone to moderate currents (Ref. 9137, 48635). Adults usually in 20+ m depth; juveniles in shallow lagoons or protected bays (Ref. 48635). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 21.2 - 29, mean 27.7 °C (based on 2628 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 39.1 [23.5, 74.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.521 [0.277, 0.853] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.7, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.18 [0.12, 0.28] g/100g ; Selenium = 41 [24, 70] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 106 [37, 340] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.05 [0.72, 1.47] mg/100g (wet weight);