Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 20 - 30; non-migratory. Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 12468); 19°N - 14°N
North and Central America: Rio San Juan, Mexico to Guatemala. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30499); common length : 4.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)
Occurs in warm springs and their effluents, canals and weedy ditches, and stream pools (Ref. 5723). Food is mainly detritus (Ref. 36880). Some populations in caves (Ref. 27297).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
28 days after fertilization female gives birth to 30-80 young. Sexual maturity is reached after 7-12 months (Ref. 2060).
Proudlove, G.S., 1997. A synopsis of the hypogean fishes of the world. p. 351-354. In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Speleology, La Chaux de Fonds, Switzerland. vol. 3. (Ref. 27297)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Potential pest (Ref. 1982)
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial; bait: occasionally
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00631 - 0.01659), b=3.11 (2.98 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).