Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 3 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 32°N - 24°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to the Marshall Islands, north to southern Japan, south to the southern Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia; throughout Micronesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1602); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9812)
Occur in coastal waters, mainly in reef flats and shallow lagoon reefs; often in silty habitats Form schools at the surface (Ref. 9710, 48637). Usually swimming in surface waters near freshwater run-offs. Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Used as live bait in pole-and-line tuna fishing (Ref. 9812).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; bait: usually
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25.2 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 2805 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00600 - 0.01591), b=2.89 (2.75 - 3.03), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.4 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 63.8 [25.1, 220.1] mg/100g; Iron = 0.664 [0.291, 1.741] mg/100g; Protein = 18.6 [16.6, 20.4] %; Omega3 = 0.136 [0.063, 0.299] g/100g; Selenium = 21 [10, 53] μg/100g; VitaminA = 74.7 [14.1, 323.0] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.81 [1.14, 2.76] mg/100g (wet weight);