Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 701 - 2868 m (Ref. 96339). Deep-water; 65°N - 35°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 57326)
Circumglobal. Eastern Atlantic: Iceland, and from France south to Morocco including Madeira and Azores Islands; Mauritania south to Guinea Bissau (Ref. 4460). Reported from Western Australia and New South Wales (Ref. 7300).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96339)
Meso- and bathypelagic (Ref. 58302). Found in areas with steeply inclined slopes. Ovarian eggs relatively large (1.8 mm in diameter) and few (96 in a female of 10 cm).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Markle, D.F. and J.-C. Quéro, 1984. Alepocephalidae (including Bathylaconidae, Bathyprionidae). p. 228-253. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4736)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 2.9 - 6.3, mean 4 °C (based on 1957 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00339 (0.00159 - 0.00720), b=3.19 (3.00 - 3.38), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec=96).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).