Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 50 - 848 m (Ref. 56504), usually ? - 150 m (Ref. 10780). Deep-water; 52°N - 15°S, 18°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: British Isles and English Channel to Angola, including the Mediterranean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 22 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
Depth range from 50-600 m (Ref. 10780) and from 288-848 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Gregarious. Occurs on muddy or rocky bottoms of the shelf. Digs the mud with its rostrum, searching for prey; stands and walks on the bottom with its free pectoral rays. After a pelagic existence, the juveniles live in coastal waters before migrating to deeper waters (Ref. 6556). Minimum depth range taken from Ref. 27000.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Wheeler, A., 1992. A list of the common and scientific names of fishes of the British Isles. J. Fish Biol. 41(suppl.A):1-37. (Ref. 5204)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 8 - 17.4, mean 13.8 °C (based on 488 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00338 - 0.00539), b=3.05 (2.99 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 6.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 31.9 [17.3, 71.7] mg/100g; Iron = 0.489 [0.251, 0.952] mg/100g; Protein = 17 [16, 18] %; Omega3 = 0.612 [0.261, 1.769] g/100g; Selenium = 19.4 [8.7, 46.6] μg/100g; VitaminA = 11.1 [2.7, 44.5] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.417 [0.286, 0.617] mg/100g (wet weight);