Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Percoidei
(Perchs) > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: Percina: Latin, diminutive of perch = perch (Ref. 45335); caprodes: Percina=a small perch; caprodes, Greek for resembling a pig (referring to the snout) (Ref. 79012). More on author: Rafinesque.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Temperate; 60°N - 30°N
North America: St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay and Mississippi River basins from Quebec to Saskatchewan in Canada south to Gulf of Mexico; and Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages in the USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 12.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 3.00 years (Ref. 12193)
Most common over gravel and sand in medium-sized rivers but can be found almost anywhere from small, fast-flowing rock-bottomed streams to vegetated lakes (Ref. 5723, 10294). Adults feed on larvae of midges, mayflies, caddisflies (especially hydropsychids), riffle beetles, stoneflies, limpets, and fish eggs (Ref. 10294). Eggs are found buried in the substrate (Ref. 7043).
Spawns in running water on sand or fine roots over sand (Ref. 7471). Eggs are found buried in the substrate (Ref. 7043).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00231 - 0.01249), b=3.14 (2.94 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.46 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=3; Fec=97-611).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .