Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acropomatiformes
(Oceanic basses) > Pentacerotidae
(Armorheads) > Pentacerotinae
Etymology: Pentaceros: Greek, pente = five + Greek, keras = horn (Ref. 45335); richardsoni: Named after John Richardson, naturalist and explorer (Ref. 6885).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 0 - 1000 m (Ref. 75886). Temperate; 23°S - 56°S, 68°W - 174°W
Southeast Atlantic: Tristan de Cunha and South Africa. Western Indian Ocean: South Africa. South Pacific: southern Australia and New Zealand and Cape Horn, Chile. North Pacific records refers to pectoralis (Ref. 4537).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 56.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5449)
Have been trawled on the continental shelf and slope; juveniles recorded from surface waters (Ref. 9563). Depth range reported at 0m-600m in Ref. 5449.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C., 1986. Pentacerotidae. p. 622-623. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 5449)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.8 - 16.7, mean 11.6 °C (based on 217 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5157 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 32.7 [19.1, 55.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.412 [0.267, 0.645] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.3 [18.4, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.667 [0.416, 1.078] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.7 [8.4, 28.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.18 [3.26, 26.38] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.628 [0.460, 0.843] mg/100g (wet weight);