Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Dasyatidae
(Stingrays) > Urogymninae
Etymology: Pateobatis: Combination of Latin 'pateo' for 'lie open, be exposed' and 'batis' for skate, ray or flatfish; referring to the eclectic nature of members of this group.. More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - 30 m (Ref. 58048), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-Malay Arch., Java to Vietnam, including Sumatra and Borneo.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 75 - ? cm
Max length : 119 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 58048)
Demersal on soft substrates to a depth of at least 30 m (Ref.58048). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Common catch component of the demersal tangle net and bottom trawl fisheries. Utilized for its meat, skin (high value) and cartilage (Ref.58048).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 28.7 - 29.2, mean 29 °C (based on 421 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00366 - 0.01891), b=3.10 (2.90 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (73 of 100) .