Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes
(Ground sharks) > Pentanchidae
Etymology: Parmaturus: parma (L.), from parme (Gr.), small shield; oura (Gr.), tail, presumably referring to upper edge of caudal fin “armed with modified” scales (per Garman 1913). (See ETYFish); macmillani: In honor of ichthyologist Peter McMillan (b. 1955, note Latinization of “Mc” to “Mac”), who collected type and “many examples of undescribed or poorly known marine fish and invertebrate species” from deep waters off New Zealand. (See ETYFish).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 670 - 1500 m (Ref. 26346). Deep-water
Southwest in the Indian Ocea, Madagascar and the Pacific, New Zealand.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26346)
A rare and poorly known species inhabiting the lower continental slope (Ref. 26346).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cox, G. and M. Francis, 1997. Sharks and rays of New Zealand. Canterbury Univ. Press, Univ. of Canterbury. 68 p. (Ref. 26346)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 2.2 - 7.3, mean 5.8 °C (based on 161 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00355 (0.00173 - 0.00727), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100).