Teleostei (teleosts) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Soleidae
Etymology: Pardachirus: Greek, pardias, -ou = a fish similar to grey mullet + Greek, cheir = hand (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 15 m (Ref. 3200). Tropical
Western Indian Ocean: Red Sea and Persian Gulf to Durban, South Africa and Sri Lanka (Ref. 30573).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3505)
Occurs in shallow coastal waters, on sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 30573). Feeds mainly on bottom living invertebrates. Marketed fresh. Produces a bitter toxic substance from the bases of the dorsal and anal fin rays that deters predation, even by sharks (Ref. 9710) and thus may prove valuable as a shark repellent (Ref. 4537).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and O. Gon, 1986. Soleidae. p. 868-874. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3200)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25 - 29.3, mean 28 °C (based on 1176 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00456 - 0.02002), b=3.07 (2.90 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 70 [25, 246] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.567 [0.225, 1.147] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.6, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.0627 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 23.4 [11.6, 52.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 70.4 [18.7, 272.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.14 [0.69, 1.72] mg/100g (wet weight);