Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Ephippidae
(Spadefishes, batfishes and scats)
Etymology: Parapsettus: Greek, para = the side of + Greek psetta = grouper (Ref. 45335). More on author: Steindachner.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated. Tropical; 28°N - 11°S, 111°W - 77°W
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9299); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Demersal over coral reefs and rocky bottoms of shallow waters (Ref. 9299). Feeds on invertebrates (Ref. 9299). Maximum TL of at least 30 cm (Ref. 9299).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Thomson, D.A., 1987. Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez. The rocky-shore fishes of the Gulf of California. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 302 p. (Ref. 5592)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.9 - 28.9, mean 27 °C (based on 193 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01047 - 0.06310), b=2.94 (2.73 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .