Teleostei (teleosts) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Paralichthys: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, ichthys = fish + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous; depth range 1 - 45 m (Ref. 43588), usually 1 - 20 m (Ref. 43588). Subtropical; 23°S - 41°S
Southwest Atlantic: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to at least Mar de la Plata, Argentina.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 39 - ? cm
Max length : 83.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 127691); common length : 32.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 43588); max. reported age: 11 years (Ref. 127691)
soft rays: 52 - 59;
Vertebrae: 35 - 36. Body shape oval, with the greatest breadth 2.5 times in length. Eyes are on the left side, close together, and equally in advance. Teeth are in a single series, sharply pointed. Dorsal fin origin aligned with eyes. Lateral line arched over the pectoral fin. Eye side of the body slightly rough, with finely ciliated scales (Ref. 3157).
Populations are found in shallow coastal marine waters (Ref. 127691). They enter coastal lagoons (Ref. 36453). Nursery grounds are found in estuaries, coastal lagoons and brackish surf waters (Ref. 127691). Adults feed on pelagic and benthic species of crustaceans (penaeids and brachyurans), and lesser important fishes (Ref. 43588). Juveniles mainly feed on plolychaetes (Ref. 127691).
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Figueiredo, J.L. and N.A. Menezes, 2000. Manual de peixes marinhos do sudeste do Brasil. VI.Teleostei (5). Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. Brazil. 116 p. (Ref. 36453)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 13.4 - 22.8, mean 16.1 °C (based on 118 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00431 - 0.01163), b=3.12 (2.98 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.54 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K = 0.12).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 64.7 [29.4, 115.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.905 [0.455, 1.626] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.3 [13.9, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.173 [0.086, 0.325] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.3 [11.4, 54.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.9 [3.3, 46.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.681 [0.446, 1.021] mg/100g (wet weight);