Teleostei (teleosts) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Paralichthys: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, ichthys = fish + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous; depth range 10 - 183 m (Ref. 5951), usually ? - 37 m (Ref. 5951). Temperate; 45°N - 25°N, 81°W - 57°W
Northwest Atlantic: Maine (rarely Nova Scotia, Canada) to southern Florida, USA.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 28.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 94.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); max. published weight: 12.0 kg (Ref. 7251); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 52684)
Adults usually prefer hard sandy substrate where they can burrow; can exploit a broad range of lower and mid-estuary habitats including salt marsh creeks and seagrass beds, which usually have muddy or silty substrates , as well as sand flats (Ref. 26621). Occur in bays, lagoons and shallow coastal waters. Utilized fresh and frozen; can be steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Exported fresh to Japan for sashimi.
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 9.1 - 24.4, mean 19.1 °C (based on 12 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00467 - 0.00743), b=3.17 (3.12 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.77-0.84(?); assuming tm>=2; tmax=9).
Prior r = 0.86, 95% CL = 0.57 - 1.30, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 25.9 [11.3, 42.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.292 [0.145, 0.532] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.5 [14.1, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.374 [0.200, 0.700] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.3 [8.0, 35.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.6 [2.5, 41.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.321 [0.219, 0.478] mg/100g (wet weight);