Teleostei (teleosts) > Scombriformes
(Mackerels) > Gempylidae
Etymology: Paradiplospinus: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, diploos = double + Latin, spina, pinna = thron (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Andriashev.
Validity of species questionnable for some authors, but no recent publications.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 0 - 2830 m (Ref. 6181). Deep-water; 31°S - 79°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 6181)
Southern Ocean: circumpolar. In the belief that there was only a single species of Paradiplospinus, many authors used the name Paradiplospinus gracilis as including Paradiplospinus antarcticus.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 52.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6181); common length : 35.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6181)
(total): 36 - 39;
soft rays: 25 - 31;
Vertebrae: 64 - 67. Body is extremely elongate. Mouth with fang-like teeth, 3-6 fangs anteriorly in upper jaw and 1 fang on each side of the lower jaw. Pyloric caeca 6. Color is silvery white without any conspicuous marks except 40 - 50 narrow longitudinal lines of pale melanophores; the dorsal-fin base, opercular region and caudal-fin origin dark brownish.
Adults and subadults epipelagic to mesopelagic, or mesobenthopelagic at shelves and slopes from surface to 830 m (temp. 0° to 4°C). Larvae and juveniles, probably mesopelagic to bathypelagic, down to 2,830 m depth (Ref. 5084). Feeds on krill, squid and fishes (predominantly myctophids). Larval and juvenile specimens mostly obtained between southern land masses and the Antarctic continent.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nakamura, I. and N.V. Parin, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 15. Snake mackerels and cutlassfishes of the world (families Gempylidae and Trichiuridae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the snake mackerels, snoeks, escolars, gemfishes, sackfishes, domine, oilfish, cutlassfishes,. scabbardfishes, hairtails, and frostfishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(15):136 p. (Ref. 6181)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 0.8 - 7.8, mean 3.5 °C (based on 694 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00166 - 0.00830), b=3.10 (2.91 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.53 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100).