Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 70 m (Ref. 39597). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: southern India to southern China and New Caledonia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
(total): 12 - 15;
soft rays: 5. Geographical differences: specimens from the Gulf of Thailand usually with large blotches over the body; those from Indonesia and Australia generally have less solid markings. Species observed to alter its color from light to dark in captivity. Scales in vertical rows, 44-66 (Ref. 39597).
Found inshore on and around corals and hard bottoms (Ref. 39597), silty and muddy habitats (Ref. 48635). Often taken by nets and handlines (Ref. 39597). Also found in rocky bottoms and coral reef crevices in about 7-70 m (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.4 - 29.1, mean 28.1 °C (based on 1516 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02344 (0.01241 - 0.04430), b=2.93 (2.76 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).