Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Orbiraja: Name from Latin word 'orbis' meaning circle, referring to the paired, ring-like pectoral-fin ocelli in all three nominal species.. More on author: Alcock.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 15 - 460 m (Ref. 114953). Tropical; 23°N - 5°N, 71°E - 99°E (Ref. 114953)
Northern Indian Ocean: Arabian Sea (India) to Bay of Bengal (Myanmar).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - 35 cm
Max length : 21.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 26165); 22.0 cm WD (female)
Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205); approximately 6 cm long (Ref. 114953). Utilized for its meat (Ref.58048).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.4 - 17.7, mean 16.5 °C (based on 17 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00145 - 0.00660), b=3.22 (3.04 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .