Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 70 - 90 m (Ref. 10932), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Western Pacific: Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan to the East China Sea as far south as the northernmost parts of the Okinawa Trough, and the Sea of Genkai (Ref. 10932). Reported from Taiwan (Ref. 12711), China and the Philippines (Ref. 8630).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 37.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 10932); 37.0 cm TL (female)
Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 3.5-4.8 cm long and 2.5-3.0 cm wide (Ref. 41249, 41298).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16 - 23.2, mean 21.8 °C (based on 14 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00145 - 0.00660), b=3.22 (3.04 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .