Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Myliobatidae
(Eagle and manta rays)
Etymology: Myliobatis: Greek, mylo = mill + Greek, + Greek, batis,-idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range - 160 m (Ref. 26346), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C -
Southwest Pacific: Norfolk Island and New Zealand, including the Kermadec Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 12951); common length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Olive-green, yellow or dark brown dorsally with pale blue or grey markings; white ventrally (Ref. 26346). No caudal fin (Ref. 26346).
Occurs in bays, estuaries, and near rocky reefs (Ref. 12951). Usually solitary (Ref. 12951). Feeds on clams, oysters, worms, and crabs (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Although the spine on the tail is capable of inflicting a painful wound, the poison is quickly neutralized by immersion of the injured area in hot water (Ref. 26346).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Young are born at less than 50 cm (Ref. 26346).
Francis, M.P., 1993. Checklist of the coastal fishes of Lord Howe, Norfolk, and Kermadec Islands, Southwest Pacific Ocean. Pac. Sci. 47(2):136-170. (Ref. 8879)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.4 - 19.8, mean 16.6 °C (based on 74 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00121 - 0.01252), b=3.08 (2.83 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 13.9 [1.6, 76.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.297 [0.053, 1.140] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [16.5, 21.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.632 [0.178, 2.050] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.3 [2.8, 74.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 6.55 [1.34, 31.88] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.561 [0.147, 2.161] mg/100g (wet weight);