Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 76 m (Ref. 89891). Subtropical; 45°N - 1°S, 95°W - 46°W
Western Atlantic: New England to Florida in USA and Gulf of Mexico. Yucatan and Venezuela (Ref. 26938).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Reticulated pattern of light brown blotches on dark brown background (Ref. 26938).
Known only from moderate depths along outer continental shelf.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.9 - 28, mean 26.2 °C (based on 236 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00050 (0.00024 - 0.00103), b=3.26 (3.10 - 3.42), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100).