Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; depth range 0 - 70 m (Ref. 34291), usually 0 - 50 m (Ref. 34291). Tropical; 22°C - 26°C (Ref. 2059)
Africa: known from the Lower Nile up to the Lake Victoria basin (Ref. 1878), including Baro system in Ethiopia (Ref. 54860). Present in Lakes Victoria, Kyoga, Albert, Edward and George, the Victoria and Murchison Nile (Ref. 34290), and the Middle Akagera system (Ref. 46152). Also known from the Lake Turkana basin and the Northern Ewaso Nyiro (Ref. 52331).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 34290); common length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 34290)
Morphology | Morphometrics
spines: 0. Dorsal head profile straight or somewhat curved, sloping steeply. Snout produced into a stout trunk whose thickness and angle to the face are variable. Lips thick. Eye small. Dull bronze dorsally, lighter ventrally (Ref. 34290).
Solitary, nocturnal species (Ref. 28714). In Lake Victoria in both coastal and offshore waters (Ref. 4903). May spawn in the main lake, perhaps in deep water over rocks (Ref. 52083). In Lake Kyoga in open water rather than weedy areas (Ref. 55624). Bottom feeder; small fishes eat lithophilic insects; adults almost exclusively insectivorous; chironomids dominate in the diet (Ref. 12526). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gosse, J.-P., 1984. Mormyridae. p. 63-122. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3203)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00693 - 0.02085), b=2.87 (2.72 - 3.02), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 7.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 1,393).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (61 of 100) .