Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated. Subtropical
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida Keys (USA), and Bahamas to northern South America. Scarce in western Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 26938).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); 50.0 cm TL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
A very, slender, elongate, cylindrical eel with a projecting lower jaw. Lateral line complete ending at base of tail. (Ref. 26938).
Young and females burrow in sandy tide pools and reef tracts. Males inhabit deeper water, possibly pelagic. Adults emerge at night and sometimes come to lights at the surface (Ref. 26938). Feed on burrowing invertebrates that live in the sand (Ref. 26938).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 23.8 - 28.2, mean 27.3 °C (based on 786 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5003 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00102 (0.00046 - 0.00225), b=3.06 (2.88 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 50 [20, 135] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.584 [0.290, 1.102] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [16.8, 21.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.203 [0.081, 0.560] g/100g ; Selenium = 10.4 [4.1, 25.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 114 [26, 489] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.4 [0.8, 2.2] mg/100g (wet weight);