Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range - 2000 m (Ref. 58018), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C -
Eastern Central Pacific: California, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 34506)
Mesopelagic (Ref. 96339).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hubbs, C.L., W.I. Follett and L.J. Dempster, 1979. List of the fishes of California. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, USA, No. 133, 51 p. (Ref. 7182)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.5 - 7.7, mean 5.4 °C (based on 16 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .