Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; amphidromous. Tropical; 19°N - 21°S
Western Pacific: Yaeyama Islands (Japan) south to Queensland (Australia) and east to New Caledonia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894)
Adults inhabit inshore areas near mangroves. Occur in lentic and lotic freshwater (Ref. 7300). Juveniles commonly found in the lower sections of creeks and may penetrate several kilometers into fresh water (Ref. 2847, 44894). Omnivore. Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent (Ref. 205).
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 26.4 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 344 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.00638 - 0.04320), b=2.99 (2.76 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 116 [65, 207] mg/100g; Iron = 0.805 [0.471, 1.486] mg/100g; Protein = 17.9 [16.9, 18.9] %; Omega3 = 0.171 [0.084, 0.337] g/100g; Selenium = 33.6 [16.8, 70.3] μg/100g; VitaminA = 27.3 [9.0, 75.2] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.3 [0.9, 2.0] mg/100g (wet weight);