Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic. Tropical; 38°N - 8°N
Asia: Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh. Reported from Nepal (Ref. 9496).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 11.5, range 11 - 12 cm
Max length : 18.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 125887); max. published weight: 34.52 g (Ref. 125887)
Inhabits slow and shallow waters of rivers of plains and estuaries; never available above an altitude of 366 m. Also found in canals, streams, beels, ponds and inundated fields (Ref. 1479). Has been placed into aquaria and kept by hobbyists; it stays on the bottom and spawns in the upper water-level. The more slender and generally smaller males pursue the female in courtship; several males may join in.
Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. Volume 2. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, i-xxii + 543-1158, 1 pl. (Ref. 4833)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00398 (0.00310 - 0.00512), b=3.02 (2.96 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.51 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=1.0-1.7).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 354 [225, 712] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.41 [1.44, 4.14] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [16.2, 18.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.173 [0.085, 0.348] g/100g ; Selenium = 52.6 [24.3, 111.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 31.9 [13.8, 72.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.43 [1.06, 1.97] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.