Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 25 - 560 m (Ref. 11230). Deep-water
Northwest Pacific: Japan, Korea, and the Yellow and East China seas.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 52.7, range 39 - 63 cm
Max length : 150 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559); max. published weight: 3.5 kg (Ref. 124479)
Found in sandy mud bottom (Ref. 11230). A carnivore (Ref. 9137). Mainly feed on fish, euphausiids, sagittoids and shrimps (Ref. 53326). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166). Consumed as food, liver considered as delicacy in Japan (Ref. 47220).
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 5.6 - 20.9, mean 17.4 °C (based on 173 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00982 - 0.02031), b=3.01 (2.91 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.72 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=6.2; Fec=310,000 (batch fecundity)).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (78 of 100).