Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic. Tropical
Eastern Pacific: Nicaragua to Peru (Ref. 9312). Mexico and Sea of cortez (Ref. 97273)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9312); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9312)
Body deep and moderately compressed, the depth much greater than head length; eyes small; upper jaw scarcely protractile; vomer, palate and tongue toothless; nostrils round and close together; preopercle distinctly serrated; lower branch of first gill arch with 15 gill rakers; in large individuals, the dorsal and anal fins, along with the caudal fin, appear like 3 caudal fins; body olive colored, speckled with dark spots; juveniles yellowish with dark spots (Ref. 55763).
Feeds mainly on benthic crustaceans and small fishes (Ref. 9312).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C., 1995. Lobotidae. Dormilonas. p. 1226. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9312)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01862 (0.00826 - 0.04196), b=3.01 (2.81 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 59.9 [32.6, 124.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.717 [0.411, 1.263] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [17.3, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.181 [0.100, 0.333] g/100g ; Selenium = 77.1 [38.4, 173.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.25 [2.87, 28.56] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.81 [0.55, 1.30] mg/100g (wet weight);