Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; catadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - 20 m (Ref. 7399). Temperate; 64°N - 20°N, 26°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Scotland to Cape Verde; in the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Also in coastal waters from southern Norway to Morocco, rare off Mauritania (Ref. 3573). Records from the lagoon of Accra are probably misidentifications.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 34.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 61.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 117745); common length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7399); max. published weight: 2.5 kg (Ref. 117745)
Adults are neritic usually in schools, entering lagoons and lower estuaries (Ref. 7399); rarely entering freshwater (Ref. 3573, 59043). Juveniles move to coastal lagoons and estuaries in winter and especially in spring (Ref. 59043). They feed on small benthic organisms, detritus, and occasionally on insects and plankton (Ref. 2804). Juveniles feed only on zooplankton (Ref. 59043). Reproduction takes place in the sea, from July to November. Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Minimum size allowed for fishing is 20 cm. The quality of the flesh is variable (Ref. 30578).
Juveniles move to coastal lagoons and estuaries in winter and especially in spring (Ref. 59043).
Thomson, J.M., 1986. Mugilidae. p. 344-349. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels, MRAC; Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3573)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 9.7 - 20.7, mean 11.9 °C (based on 344 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00856 - 0.01223), b=2.95 (2.92 - 2.98), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.33 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 5.5 (3.7 - 6.9) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 31 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.14-0.34; tm=3-4; Fec>10,000).
Prior r = 0.77, 95% CL = 0.51 - 1.16, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 15.9 [5.1, 136.9] mg/100g; Iron = 0.255 [0.151, 0.421] mg/100g; Protein = 18.2 [16.9, 19.7] %; Omega3 = 1.21 [0.47, 3.11] g/100g; Selenium = 2.88 [1.17, 7.25] μg/100g; VitaminA = 12.9 [3.4, 52.7] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.478 [0.334, 0.670] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.