Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 300 m (Ref. 35388). Temperate; 81°N - 48°N, 25°W - 62°E
Northeast Atlantic: southern Norway north to Barents Sea including Novaya Zemlya, Spitsbergen and Bear Island, also Iceland.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4645)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Suction disc much larger than the eye diameter. Dorsal and anal fins overlap with the caudal fin. Two nostrils on each side of the snout (Ref. 35388).
Occurs from the subtidal zone to less than 300 m (Ref. 4702). Feeds primarily on crustaceans, occasionally fishes and polychaetes (Ref. 4702). Spawns in the winter (Ref. 35388).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Perlmutter, A., 1961. Guide to marine fishes. Bramhall House, New York. 431 p. (Ref. 169)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 4.9 - 11.4, mean 8 °C (based on 512 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00237 - 0.01161), b=3.15 (2.96 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.58 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fecundity assumed < 100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).